In the industrial era of 4.0, understand the uses of technology and big data processing is needed in all sector, including ocean sector. In this summer program, all participants had an opportunity to learn several advanced technologies for marine applications.
Original article by International Office - Institut Teknologi Sumatera
If the United States of America and Russia have Global Positioning Services (GPS) and GLONASS respectively, China has BeiDou Satellites orbiting the Earth. During the course we were introduced about the development and the principal concepts of BeiDou Satellites including its application for ocean science and technology.
In addition we learned several instruments for observing ocean parameters, such as CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) instrument and its sensors. This instrument is crucial to get better understanding about ocean so that we could make trajectories of future climates, phenomena, and fate of the ocean. These instruments were also deployed by many countries and there were nearly real-time dataset gained from the instruments that are publicly available to access, such as Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) and WestPack.
We then learned about data processing using several software, such as MATLAB for satellite modelling and tide prediction, ArcMap and ENVI for data and image processing in Geographic Information System (GIS), SNAP for processing satellite images to identify specific features in the marine environment, and underwater topographic software to identify the underwater elevation and sediments of bottom of the water.
These knowledge and practical skills are needed in this era of smart ocean to better understand our ocean so that human may make better science-based decision and policy making to protect and manage our ocean.
China and Indonesia has different ocean characteristics and socio-cultural values so that they should have different approaches in managing ocean. While Indonesia has only tropical water seas, China has two types of sea water where tropical sea water is in the South China sea and temperate sea water is in the East China, Yellow, and Bohai Sea.
These different characteristic will influence the different marine biodiversity in the region. Tropical sea is characterized by high marine biodiversity, especially Indonesia is also a part of Coral Triangle Region where the marine biodiversity hotspot is there. Indonesia, therefore, has more marine species biodiversity compared to China. There are 22,629 marine species recorded in the China’s seas that belong to 49 phyla. This number represents 10% of the World total biodiversity. Fishes, crabs, shrimp, and cephalopods are the main major biological diversity in China with 1.694 fish species recorded and 150 of them has major economic values.
In addition, there are 90 species of cephalopod, 300 species of shrimp, 42 species of krill and 600 species of crab inhabit in the China sea (Liu, 2012). Compared to Indonesia, Indonesia has approximately 76% of the world´s coral species and 37% of the world´s coral reef fish species (UNDP, 2016).
In term of ocean observation system, China has more advanced technology in observing Ocean compared to Indonesia. China has developed many technologies including sensors and instruments, such as CTD and glider instrument to explore deep ocean under 1000 meter, to get better understanding of the ocean.
by Adib Mustofa S.Pi.,M.App.Sc
Lecturer delegation to Tianjin University for Summer Program “Smart Ocean”
Sekretaris Program Studi Sains Lingkungan Kelautan
Dosen dan Peneliti Program Studi Sains Lingkungan Kelautan, Institut Teknologi Sumatera. Fokus penelitian: Ekologi Laut dan Konservasi Pesisir dan Laut